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Myopia (Nearsightedness)

 

adult onset myopia

In the adult onset group, myopia ranged a little lower than in early onset myopia (mean values and D, respectively), but high myopia was encountered in both groups (peak values and D). In both groups axial elongation was the main oculometric event. There was no evidence of a corneal/lenticular background in adult onset myopia. Myopia is the medical term for nearsightedness. Late adult onset means that the nearsightedness started during later adulthood, which is considered 40 or older. In myopia, you have difficulty seeing things clearly at a distance, while things close are clear. Myopia is correctable, and may be mild or severe, beginning slowly or quickly. Nearsightedness, or myopia, as it is medically termed, is a vision condition in which people can see close objects clearly, but objects farther away appear blurred. People with myopia can have difficulty clearly seeing a movie or TV screen, a whiteboard in school or while driving.


The Study of Progression of Adult Nearsightedness (SPAN): Design and Baseline Characteristics


Mohamed Dirani, adult onset myopia, Sri N. Shekar, Paul N. To report the frequency of adult-onset myopia in a large cohort of Caucasian adult onset myopia that were assessed as part of the Genes in Myopia GEM twin study and to quantify the genetic contribution in adult-onset myopia using the classic twin model.

Each twin completed a standard questionnaire and underwent a comprehensive eye assessment, including cycloplegic objective examination. Adult-onset myopia is a relatively common condition, with approximately one quarter of cases occurring in adulthood.

Purchase this article with an account. Jump To Methods Results Discussion. Mohamed Dirani ; Sri N. Shekar ; Paul N. Author Affiliations Mohamed Dirani. Alerts User Alerts. You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account, adult onset myopia. This feature is available to authenticated users only. Get Citation Citation. Get Permissions. Myopia is a common eye condition that affects approximately one in four individuals in Western populations.

Myopia can be categorized by severity and age of onset. High myopia has been reported to be less common than in childhood-onset myopia, possibly reflecting its later onset. The prevalence of adult-onset myopia appears to vary significantly, depending on the demographics of the sample population being studied. For instance, in a recent study, Onal et al.

In contrast, Iribarren et al. Moreover, it is important to ascertain whether adult-onset myopia is a different form, or subtype, of myopia than early-onset myopia or merely represents one end of the adult onset myopia spectrum. To further investigate adult-onset myopia, we report its frequency in a sample of Caucasian twins who took part in the Genes in Myopia GEM twin study. We also wanted to quantify the genetic contribution to adult-onset myopia by using a classic twin model.

Written informed consent was obtained from each twin before any testing. The protocol adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and all privacy requirements were met. Each twin completed a standard questionnaire, and a comprehensive eye examination was administered that included a cycloplegic objective refraction.

As part of the questionnaire, the age of onset of myopia was determined through information self-reported on the twins ocular history. Age of onset was defined as the age adult onset myopia which spectacles or contact lenses were first prescribed to correct the adult onset myopia. The questionnaire covered other items, such as demographics, medical history, ocular history, and zygosity. Three readings were adult onset myopia for each eye and the average value recorded.

To ensure maximum dilation, we performed objective refraction at least 25 minutes after instillation of the tropicamide. The premise of most twin models is to compare intrapair correlations the degree of relatedness for a variable within monozygotic [MZ] or dizygotic [DZ] twin pairs. Structural equation modeling SEM was used to determine the combination of A additive geneticC common environmental effectsD nonadditive geneticand E unique environment and measurement error that provided the most parsimonious model according to analysis with the statistical program Mx.

All other analyses were performed with commercial software SPSS ver. A total of twins MZ twins and DZ twins between 18 and 86 years of age mean, Most of the twins were of a Caucasian adult onset myopia, and therefore no ethnic comparisons could be undertaken, adult onset myopia. There was no significant difference in mean SE between MZ twin pairs 0.

There adult onset myopia no statistically significant difference in mean SE between the right eyes 0. Adult onset myopia of the twins examined, 54 33 MZ twins and 21 DZ twins had no objective refraction measurements, because they left the examination before the completion of all tests.

In some cases the autorefractor was not available to the primary investigator. A total of twins were included in this analysis, to estimate the frequency of myopia in the GEM twin study. Of the 96 twins with adult-onset myopia, 58 We excluded individuals with adult-onset myopia from the main analysis to determine whether this would have any effect on the overall heritability estimates.

After excluding these twins from the main analysis, we found no significant effect on the overall heritability estimates reported in the GEM twin study. For both the males and the females, the sex limitation ADE model was found to be the best-fit genetic model to explain the variance in SE Tables 2 3. The GEM twin study is novel, in that it has provided the frequency of adult-onset myopia in a twin cohort that is more representative of the general population, 15 compared with studies that included selected participants.

Our findings demonstrate that onset of myopia during adulthood is common and should be taken into account in the study of myopia, particularly in research investigating its genetic and environmental determinants. For instance, it has been postulated that perhaps some aspect of the workload or how eyes respond to various tasks in adult life accounts for adult-onset myopia. In the GEM twin study, we sought to obtain information regarding the genetic basis to adult onset in a cohort who data were generalizable to the population.

In the GEM twin study, almost one quarter of clinically identified myopia was self-reported to be adult onset, occurring after the age of 18 years when glasses were first prescribed. The definition used to classify adult-onset myopia has been used extensively in the literature. In a study of Turkish medical students, it was shown that the proportion of adult-onset myopia was Although it is difficult to make a direct comparison with the GEM twin cohort, which is more generalizable to the population, adult onset myopia, 15 these findings all indicate that myopia can develop at a adult onset myopia age.

The findings of our twin study support those of family-based studies, in that they provide evidence of a genetic component to adult-onset myopia.

Iribarren et al. For exploratory purposes, we undertook heritability analysis on our twin cohort without individuals with adult-onset myopia, to assess whether the heritability estimates would differ when compared to the analysis including all twins reported in the GEM twin study, adult onset myopia. We found that the exclusion of individuals with adult-onset myopia had no significant effect on the heritability estimates reported in the GEM twin study.

A limitation in the GEM twin study is the lack of ocular history data that would have confirmed or disproved the self-reported age of myopia onset ascertained through a questionnaire.

It may be argued that an individual had myopia for several years before being aware of its existence or being informed its presence, and this may have inflated the number of twins with adult-onset myopia reported in the GEM twin study. Nonetheless, it is common for studies to determine the age of onset through questionnaires, with the question of age at which one was first prescribed glasses for refractive error being the one most commonly asked.

Furthermore, a study by Fledelius 10 determined the age of onset of myopia in individuals aged 26 to 64 years by self-report the age when first spectacles to correct distance vision were prescribed.

In conclusion, we have found that adult-onset myopia is common, with approximately one-third of myopia being acquired in adulthood years in a Caucasian twin population. In addition, all adult-onset myopia reported in the GEM twin study was low to moderate, with no cases of high myopia.

Therefore, more research is needed into the biological and developmental processes involved in adult-onset myopia. To our knowledge, the GEM twin study is the first study of its kind to provide evidence to support a genetic component in adult-onset myopia. Submitted for publication November 21, ; revised January 29, ; accepted May 27, Disclosure: M. DiraniNone; S. ShekarNone; P.

BairdNone. The publication costs of this article were defrayed in part by page charge adult onset myopia. T able 1. View Table. T able 2. T able 3. ADE The prevalence of refractive errors among adults in the United States, Western Europe, and Adult onset myopia. Arch Ophthalmol. MorganI, RoseK. How genetic is school myopia?, adult onset myopia. Prog Retin Eye Res, adult onset myopia.

Am J Ophthalmol. A synopsis of the prevalence rates and environmental risk factors for myopia. Clin Exp Optom. Myopia and stature: findings in a population ofadult onset myopia, males. Eur Adult onset myopia Ophthalmol. Parental history of myopia, sports and outdoor activities, and future myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, adult onset myopia. Refractive errors of medical students in Turkey: one year follow-up of refraction and biometry.

Optom Vis Sci. Age adult onset myopia lens use onset in a adult onset myopia sample of office-workers. Curr Eye Res, adult onset myopia. Myopia profile in Copenhagen medical students — refractive stability over a century is suggested. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. Myopia of adult onset: can analyses be based on patient memory?. Refractive errors in twin studies.

 

 

adult onset myopia

 

In the adult onset group, myopia ranged a little lower than in early onset myopia (mean values and D, respectively), but high myopia was encountered in both groups (peak values and D). In both groups axial elongation was the main oculometric event. There was no evidence of a corneal/lenticular background in adult onset myopia. Myopia is the medical term for nearsightedness. Late adult onset means that the nearsightedness started during later adulthood, which is considered 40 or older. In myopia, you have difficulty seeing things clearly at a distance, while things close are clear. Myopia is correctable, and may be mild or severe, beginning slowly or quickly. Most myopia develops during the school years 1 and stabilizes in the teenage years. 2 Nonetheless, a number of individuals will show myopic changes after entering college. 1 This may manifest as an increase in myopia in a previously myopic subject—adult myopia progression—or the onset of myopia in a previously emmetropic or hyperopic individual—adult-onset repalai.ga by: